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Phytonutrients/Phytochemicals

The following is a list of phytochemicals present in commonly consumed foods.

Phenolic compounds

Natural monophenols

Polyphenols

Flavonoids

red, blue, purple pigments

Isoflavonoid

Flavonolignan

Lignans

A phytoestrogens – seeds (flax, sesame, pumpkin, sunflower, poppy), whole grains (rye, oats, barley), bran (wheat, oat, rye), fruits (particularly berries) and vegetables.

  • Matairesinolflax seed, sesame seed, rye bran and meal, oat bran, poppy seed, strawberries, blackcurrants, broccoli.
  • Secoisolariciresinolflax seeds, sunflower seeds, sesame seeds, pumpkin, strawberries, blueberries, cranberries, zucchini, blackcurrant, carrots.
  • Pinoresinol and lariciresinol – sesame seed, Brassica vegetables

Stilbenoids

Curcuminoids

  • Curcumin – turmeric, mustard. (Oxidizes to vanillin.)

Hydrolyzable tannin

Aromatic acid

Phenolic acids

Hydroxycinnamic acids

Capsaicin

chilli peppers.

Tyrosol esters

Alkylresorcinols

wholegrain wheat, rye and barley

 

Terpenes (isoprenoids)

Carotenoids (tetraterpenoids)

Carotenes

orange pigments

  • α-Carotene – to vitamin A, in carrots, pumpkins, maize, tangerine, orange.
  • β-Carotene – to vitamin A, in dark, leafy greens and red, orange and yellow fruits and vegetables.
  • γ-Carotene – to vitamin A,
  • δ-Carotene
  • Lycopene – Vietnam Gac, tomatoes, grapefruit, watermelon, guava, apricots, carrots, autumn olive.
  • Neurosporene
  • Phytofluene – star fruit, sweet potato, orange.
  • Phytoene – sweet potato, orange.

Xanthophylls

yellow pigments.

  • Canthaxanthin – paprika.
  • Cryptoxanthin to vitamin A, in – mango, tangerine, orange, papaya, peaches, avocado, pea, grapefruit, kiwi.
  • Zeaxanthin – wolfberry, spinach, kale, turnip greens, maize, eggs, red pepper, pumpkin, oranges.
  • Astaxanthin – microalge, yeast, krill, shrimp, salmon, lobsters, and some crabs
  • Lutein – spinach, turnip greens, romaine lettuce, eggs, red pepper, pumpkin, mango, papaya, oranges, kiwi, peaches, squash, brassicates, prunes, sweet potatoes, honeydew melon, rhubarb, plum, avocado, pear, cilantro.
  • Rubixanthin – rose hips.

Monoterpenes

  • Limonene – oils of citrus, cherries, spearmint, dill, garlic, celery, maize, rosemary, ginger, basil.
  • Perillyl alcohol – citrus oils, caraway, mints.

Saponins

soybeans, beans, other legumes, maize, alfalfa.

Lipids

Triterpenoid

Betalains

Organosulfides

Indoles, glucosinolates/ sulfur compounds

Protein inhibitors

Other organic acids

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